Love letters from Ancient Greece

Oftentimes success is linked to mere unexpected factors, sometimes these happen to be quite trivial circumstances far away from your remotest aims and plans. This is most certainly the case of “Love Letters of Great Men and Women: From the Eighteenth Century to the Present Day”, a volume edited by C. H. Charles Ph. D. and published in London in 1924, which features love epistles by Madame Recamier, Amandine Aurore Lucile Dupin (a.k.a. George Sand), Marie Bashkirtseff, Benjamin Constant, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Alfred de Musset, William Congreve, Horace Walpole, Multatuli, Lord Nelson’s Lady Hamilton, dandy Beau Brummell, Guy de Maupassant, Stendhal, Camille Desmoulins, Madame de Stael, Esther Vanhomrigh, Duke of Choiseul. This rather vast and various harvest has been just recently exhumed and presented to the attention of the greater – and rather consumerism-oriented – public who is literally devouring this new paperback edition. I leave to my readers’ personal judgment as whether it really matters or not that it was “Carrie Bradshaw” (and her “Mr. Big”) to arouse this unforeseen interest: I do favour any endeavour, whichever is its source, intended to awake attention towards good writings.

On the other hand I presume that what the greater public is most likely not entirely aware of is that the writing and publication for entertainment purposes of real/fictitious letters of famed characters was already highly popular – almost a fashionable genre – in I and II century A.D.; and consequently involving brilliant authors like Lucian (Lucianus) of Samosata (Λουκιανός ο Σαμοσατεύς) a renowned orator, one of the earliest novelist ever and a true master in fictional narrative, Aristaenetus a very famous epistolographer and Alciphron (Αλκίφρων), a sophist and unparalleled fiction letter writer. Of this latter in particular we have circa 120 letters clustered by senders/addressees and namely gathering imaginary correspondence between fishermen, peasants, courtesans and parasites. All the letters have the IV century b.C. Athens (and its outskirts and countryside) as scenario, are written in pure Attic dialect, and portray various situations with sometimes ironic, mocking or funny tones, as well as a few times also shade some sorrowful, moving and passionate tenor – often the fiction involves real characters of that age.

When it comes to the theme of love, Alciphron presents us with marvellous examples of Attic prose and expression of feelings, which nowadays we may without much hesitation call romantic, in particular the fictitious correspondence between Menander (Μένανδρος), the most famous playwright of 4th century B.C. (originator of the New Comedy) and his lover Glycera. The preamble is that Menander was invited by Ptolemy Soter (or Lagus) King of Egypt, founder of the library and school of Alexandria – together with his rival play writer Philemon – where endless success and great riches were promised to both of them, but:


“By the Eleusinian goddesses and their mysteries, by which I have often sworn with you only, dear Glycera, I swear that, in making this avowal in writing, I have neither desire to praise myself nor to divide from you.

What happiness could I benefit from staying apart from you? In what could I take more contentment than in your love? Thanks to your tenderness and good character, even true old age shall seem youth to me. Let us be both young and then old together, and, by the gods, when time comes let us be together in death, without even realising that we are leaving this world; may jealousy never be buried with either of us into the grave, may never one survivor enjoy any other’s love. May it never be my misfortune to see you die before me; for then, what delight would be left for me?

I am presently staying in Piraeus due to my ill-health… and the reasons which have persuaded me to write to you, while you are staying in the city for the sacred festival of Demeter, the Haloa, are the following: I have received a letter from Ptolemy, King of Egypt, in which he beseeches me, promising me right regally all the good things of the world, and invites me to visit him, together with Philemon, to whom also, they say, a letter has been sent. In fact, Philemon has sent it on to me: it is to the same effect as mine, but not so ceremonious or splendid in the promises it holds out, since it is not written to Menander. Let him think about and contemplate what he wishes to do; but I will not wait for his opinion, for you, my Glycera, are my guidance, my Areopagus, my Heliaea, by Athena, you have ever been, and shall ever be my all.

So I am sending you the King’s letter; but, in order to prevent you from going through the reading of both my letter and his, I wish you also to know what reply I have determined to formulate to it. By the twelve great gods, I could not even consider sailing to Egypt, a realm so far remote from us; but, not even if Egypt was as close as Aegina. I could not even then dream of leaving my kingdom of your love, and the wandering alone in the middle of the busy inhabitants of Egypt, in a crowded desert, as it would seem to me without my Glycera. I prefer your hugs, which are sweeter and less dangerous than the special treatment of all the kings and satraps. Loss of freedom is loss of safety; flattery is shameful: the favours of Fortune are not to be trusted.

I swear it by Dionysus and his ivy-wreaths, with which I would rather be crowned, in the presence of my Glycera seated in the theatre, than with all the diadems of Ptolemy.

Shall I leave Glycera and move to Egypt? And to what purpose? To obtain gold and silver and other riches? And with whom am I to share my pleasure in it? With Glycera away from me separated by such a wide and dangerous sea? Won’t all this be plain poverty to me without her? And should I hear that she has entrusted her love to someone else, will not all these possessions be to me no more than dust and ashes? And, when I die, shall I not carry away with me my grief to the grave, and leave all my treasures a prey to those who are ever waiting to grab hold of them?

Is it so great an honour to live with Ptolemy and his satraps and others with like idle names, whose familiarity is not to be trusted, and whose enmity is perilous? If Glycera is irritated with me, I embrace her in my arms and snatch a kiss; if she is still angry, I press her further, and, if she is still resentful or rancorous, I shed tears; then she can no longer resist my grief, but beseeches me in her turn; because she has neither soldiers, nor lancer, nor guards, but I am all in all to her.

So let Philemon go to Egypt and have the benefit of the joy that is promised to me, because Philemon has no Glycera; perhaps he is not even worthy of such a blessing. And do you, my dear Glycera, I implore you, without delay after the Haloan celebrations, get on your mule and run to me, because I have never known a festival that seemed to last longer, or one more inopportune. Demeter: I beseech your favours!”

Thus starting from the real plead of the Egyptian King and Mecenate Ptolemy, confirmed by (Caius Plinius Secundus) Pliny the Elder, who reported it in his Naturalis Historia:

magnum et Menandro in comico socco testimonium regum Aegypti et Macedoniae contigit classe et per legatos petito, maius ex ipso, regiae fortunae praelata litterarum conscientia”.

[A strong testimony, too, was given to the merit of Menander, the famous comic poet, by the kings of Egypt and Macedonia, in sending to him a fleet and an embassy; though, what was still more honourable to him, he preferred enjoying the converse of his literary pursuits to the favour of kings].

and just like any modern fiction writer – by the way it is worth to reveal that Pliny does not mention anything about the invitation to Egypt extended also to Philemon, which is probably a fiction escamotage smartly used by the author to have him as an anti-hero… – Alciphron imagines and composes this correspondence between the two lovers that, apparently, no distance, prospect success or promised riches can tear apart because they decide together about their nest and consequent future.

Such an interesting key to read the correlation between love and distances as well as the changing of perspectives under different moods, very much resembling the love letters exchanged between Lord Byron and Teresa Guiccioli, namely soon after they fell in love:

“This Venice, without flowers, without trees, without perfumes, without birds, that I never liked before, with her depressing gondolas instead of my horse-carriage now seems to me the dwelling of life and lights, like heaven on earth”. Teresa

and before him departing for Greece:

“In that word, marvellous in every language, but above them all in yours – Amor mio – there lies my entire existence, now and from now onward. I feel I exist here and I am afraid here I shall exist in the future – to which purpose you will decide: my destiny depends upon you… think about me sometimes when the mountains and the Ocean will try to separate us, but I know they will never succeed, unless you want them to.” Byron


35 comments on “Love letters from Ancient Greece

  1. lustigkulle says:

    Aaah – this post is just lovely! A big smile.

    How I would have loved to get a letter as the one from Menander during my years as a (female) seaman and married to a seaman. – “No, my most beloved, I wont follow the ship to Brasil, I’ll sign off in Bremerhafen. How could I be parted from …” etc, etc.
    Of course he went to Brasil, and of course I forgave him.


  2. Grete says:

    Wonderful words and a beautiful letter.
    What did she reply? Kyssa, kisses, bisous…. Grete

  3. Jacqueline says:

    Mon Chérie,
    Un billet très romantique, douce – comme toi…
    Gros bisou,

  4. Maria says:

    My dear,
    I definitely love this post, maybe I am too much romantic, but I still believe in true love…. maybe this is why I am still alone… 🙂

  5. Vidya says:

    Dear Atheneion,
    What a fantastic post! What happened next?

  6. Erin says:

    I’d love to receive such a letter , once a year…. I guess such men are only in the movies….
    P.S:. So what did she say in return?

  7. Mary Ann says:

    But, sorry, too good to be true…l find that love and trust are difficult to gain and even more to give … only in novels and movies things go the right way….
    Mary Ann

  8. Dorothy says:

    Where is the romanticism in these days? Do guys still write love letters nowadays? Not to mention poems…!!!! Why guys like this are nowhere to be found?
    Dorothy – Albany, N.Y.

  9. Jimena says:

    Querido el amor es todo.
    El amor puede todo.
    Esta carta de Menandro es simplemente hermosa.
    Un beso

  10. Sowmya says:

    My dear,
    Beautiful, beautiful, beautiful post, cannot help commenting, thank you for bringing us these love words from the past. ->kissessssss
    P.S. How did she ( I mean glicera) reacted?

  11. Clotilde says:

    Mon Chérie,
    les hommes aussi ont besoin d’amour et tendresse …Bisou. Clotilde

  12. Hellen says:

    Hello my dearest,
    Marvellous article, this letter is so moving and reminds me of so many things….you know…..
    Love is such a beautiful thing, isn’t it?
    Zoenen –Hellen

  13. Ignacio says:

    No creo que existe la mujer justa que merece la pena de un amor tan hondo.
    Saludos, Ignacio

  14. Sandrine says:

    Les lettres sont quelque chose de magique, sont comme « le goût de l’amour ».

  15. Emily says:

    Hello darling,
    I have enjoyed this post so much…
    I believe that true love and total devotion are the foundation for an happy life… if you find the right person, of course…
    Lots of Kisses

  16. stoa says:

    Dear Lustikulle,
    thanks for your compliments; distances should truly enhance love stories, strengthen ties and make both mates cherish every single moment they have together, unfortunately this seldom happens: too much anxiousness, too many suspects and misunderstandings, too much planning and less actual enjoyment…

  17. stoa says:

    Dear Grete,
    thank you I knew you would have loved it…


    P.S. You’ll soon find out

  18. stoa says:

    Thank you Jackie – “sweetie”

  19. stoa says:

    Dear Maria,
    Never stop believing in true love, but please do not idealise it (Alas! Silly highly diffused women’s exercise) – or else you risk you will never find it!
    This would be the biggest mistake!

  20. stoa says:

    Dear Vidya,
    I am glad you loved it, and that you seem so intrigued… well be patient and you’ll find out…

  21. stoa says:

    Dear Erin,
    I am pretty convinced that there are men who – if properly inspired and reassured – do write love letters, poems and do even more…
    My advice? Do not be too judgemental, give them a chance… and if necessary even two or three…..

    P.S. It looks like I will have to write another post on Glycera’s response, so just wait for my next article.

  22. stoa says:

    Dear Mary Ann,
    That’s real life: so just try not to be too severe with your mate, and cherish who and what you have, instead of aiming at the impossible and blaming the reality – the rest will come along…..

  23. stoa says:

    Dear Dorothy,
    be assured that guys like this do exist, I promise.
    You should only pay more attention around you and be less fussy and picky: you may be surprised – besides if you don’t try you’ll never know!
    Good luck!

  24. stoa says:

    Querida Jimena:
    es el tiempo que lo puede todo: con el pasar de los días afortunadamente las heridas se van cerrando.
    Gracias por todo, y por tu beso.

  25. stoa says:

    Dear Sowmya,
    Thank you so much.
    Since everyone is asking, I suppose you will soon read what happened to the two ancient lovers

  26. stoa says:

    Dear Clotilde,
    I know, but women hardly understand it: perhaps they are too occupied in being defensive and scathing to believe it…

  27. stoa says:

    My dearest Hellen,
    I knew too well that you would have cherished this post…
    Yes I concur: love is the best (and yet can suddenly become the worst) thing that can happen to a “non-shallow” human being.
    Zoenen for you

  28. stoa says:

    creo que básicamente la persona justa no existe.
    Ciertamente hay personas, y en cada una hay una gota de la persona justa, pero ninguna tiene todo lo que tu quieres.
    Tienes que asumirlo cuanto antes y quedarte con la persona que más verdaderamente te ama, aún no se aproxima a tu ideal.

  29. stoa says:

    Dear Sandrine,
    Yes, love letters, contain many more feelings and secrets than an entire library and you know that very well…

  30. stoa says:

    Hello dear Emily,
    Wise words – as usual.
    I truly and profoundly agree with them all, especially the last part…

  31. Nicolette says:

    L’amour : la plus grande joie du monde.
    Celui qui aime est persévérant, il sait attendre, son cœur est prête a recevoir tendresse et allégresse immense..

  32. stoa says:

    Yes Nicolette,
    no doubt about it.
    I suppose sometimes women find it difficult to be patient, though.

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